Rubia tinctorum

Rubia tinctorum

Kökboyası

Trailing or scrambling perennial, to 1-2 m; rhizome red, branched, without runners. Stems herbaceous, quadrangular to subalate, ± sparingly retrorsely scabrid on angles to almost smooth, glabrous or sometimes pubescent on nodes. Leaves subcoriaceous, in whorls of 4-6, c. 30-115 x 8-25 mm, lanceolate or oblong-elliptic to broadly ovate, cuspidate or± shortly acuminate, usually distinctly petiolate, with petiole to 15 mm, midrib and margins retrorsely aculeolate, the latter often antrorsely aculeolate towards apex, lateral veins distinct beneath. Inflorescence lax, much-branched, manyflowered, pyramidal to broadly pyramidal, partial inflorescences terminal and lateral, to 30 em, subtended by elliptic to broadly ovate bracts. Pedicels 2-8 mm. Corolla pale greenish-yellow, infundibular, c. 3.5-5 mm diam., lobes triangular-lanceolate, gradually to rather abruptly aristate . Anthers oblong, c. 0.5-0.6 mm. Mericarps c. 4-6 mm diam., black. Fl. 5-8. Hedges and thickets, 400-2000 m.

S.W. & C. Asia to N.W. Himalayas; widely naturalised mainly in the W., S. and S.E. parts of Europe. Ir.-Tur. element. 
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